What is Loan Repayment?

Loan repayment is the process of paying back a debt, which involves a contractual agreement between the borrower and lender. It also involves a contracted interest rate and schedule.


It’s important to make loan repayments regularly and on time because not doing so can have severe consequences, including a negative impact on your credit history.

Types of Loans

There are a variety of loan types, from mortgages to personal loans. Some, like student loans and car loans, are secured by collateral, meaning the lender has an asset to sell in case you default on the loan. These loans typically have lower interest rates because the lender is able to recoup some of its losses from a sale.

Other loans, such as most personal and home equity loans, are unsecured. These types of loans are typically offered by credit unions, banks and NBFCs and can be used for any purpose as long as the lender doesn’t restrict it. Some borrowers prefer this type of lending because it doesn’t require the borrower to put up any collateral and it gives them the flexibility to use the funds for other purposes in the future.

Whatever loan type you choose, it is important to use the funds wisely so you can avoid debt pitfalls. Borrowing for unnecessary expenses can lead to racking up expensive and stressful debt that may damage your credit score or result in foreclosure. If you do find yourself struggling to make payments, it is best to communicate with the lender early on so you can work out arrangements before the situation escalates. This will ensure you can continue making payments, preventing the loan from going into default.

Interest Rates

Interest rates are a key consideration when you borrow money, whether it’s for personal loans, home mortgages or credit cards. The interest rate is the amount charged by a lender for the use of the money you borrowed, and it’s calculated as a percentage of your loan principal. The term “interest” is also used to describe unpaid interest added to your principal, which can occur in times when loan repayments are suspended (such as during grace periods, forbearances or deferments).

Depending on your individual circumstances and the type of loan you’re seeking, it’s worth exploring a range of different rates offered by lenders to get an idea of the potential cost of borrowing. The interest rate will have a significant impact on both your monthly repayments and the total cost of your loan over its life.

When comparing rates, be sure to take into account any fees that you may have to pay as part of the terms of your loan. These can include loan origination fees, application fees and prepayment penalties. These fees are not included in your loan’s annual percentage rate (APR), which takes into account a number of additional costs associated with borrowing money. APRs can vary between lenders and are generally higher than the simple interest rate. They’re often higher for loans with a longer term and are based on the lender’s credit criteria, debt-to-income ratios and economic trends.

Payment Options

When it comes to loan repayment, there are several options available to borrowers. The payment option chosen will ultimately have a large impact on how quickly and effectively a borrower is able to pay off their loans. The options include deferred payments, interest-only payments and full repayment of the principal balance of a loan.

Each option has its own set of benefits and drawbacks. For example, a fully amortized payment will result in the lowest overall cost over the life of a loan. However, this option is generally not suitable for borrowers who need to make periodic large payments (e.g., mortgage or car payments).

On the other hand, an income-driven repayment plan will tie the monthly payment amount to a portion of a borrower’s income. These plans are typically best suited for borrowers who cannot afford the standard repayment plan. The four IDR options include the Income-Contingent Repayment (ICR) Plan, Pay As You Earn (PAYE) Repayment Plan, Revised Pay as You Earn (REPAYE) Repayment Plan and the Income-Based Repayment (IBR) Plan.

Some of these repayment plans also provide for loan forgiveness after a certain number of years, but these benefits must be carefully weighed against the added costs of prolonging the term of a loan and accruing additional interest charges. Borrowers should always explore the available options and ensure they choose the plan that will work best for their individual circumstances.


If you can’t afford to pay back your loan, there are options available to help you get back on track. Start by examining your credit report and score for errors or inaccuracies. You may be able to improve your credit and receive more favorable terms on loans from credit unions or other lenders.

You can use online calculators to determine how different repayment plans might impact your monthly payment amount. You can also ask your loan servicer to change your repayment plan if you need lower payments or an alternative timeframe.

Other options for loan repayment include graduated and extended repayment plans. Graduated repayment decreases your payments over the first two years, then increases them every other year to finish paying off your loans in 10 years. Extended repayment plans extend your loan timeframe to up to 25 years, lowering your monthly payments but resulting in more interest charges over the life of your loan.

You can also consider loan consolidation, which is the combination of multiple loans into a single debt with one lender. This can lower your total monthly payments, fix your interest rate and simplify your loan repayment by working with just one company. Many lenders are willing to work with you to develop a repayment arrangement, particularly during the Coronavirus/Covid-19 pandemic.